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Traffic Speeding Tickets   |    Probable Cause Traffic Stops  | Traffic Accident Reconstruction    |    Expert Witnesses

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Traffic Speeding Ticket / Citation Expert  - By Perry Zucker

Speed Detection Devices:

Police Officers use one of many speed measuring devices in order to determine the speed of a moving vehicle. They are as follows:

Radar Speeding Ticket

Works on the principal of transmitting certain types of radio waves that bounces off the target vehicle (yours) and measuring the Doppler frequency shift, the radar's microprocessor converts it to a displayed reading. Some radar units can be used in stationary or moving mode.

Lidar / Laser Speeding Ticket

Laser / Lidar is similar to radar but uses infrared light and a time-based circuit to determine the target vehicle's speed.

Pacing / Pace / Clocking Speeding Ticket

Pacing / Pace / Clocking is where the Officer keeps a uniform distance to / from the target vehicle (yours) for a specific distance while monitoring his/her speedometer, in order to determine the target vehicle's speed.

Gap Time / Vascar ENRADD Speeding Ticket

Gap Time / Vascar / ENRADD uses a time based circuit versus a predetermined distance in order to obtain the speed of the target vehicle. In other words, we can use the equation of Speed = distance / time.

Aerial / Airplane / Aircraft / Helicopter Ticket

Airplane / Aerial / Aircraft / Helicopters uses either gap time / VASCAR or moving radar for speed detection.

Visual Estimation / Observation Ticket

Visual Estimation / Observation uses a human process in which the Police Officer observes the target vehicle prior to enter the speed measuring device "zone of influence" and determines how fast the vehicle in question is traveling.

Proper Operating Procedure

All speed measuring devices should be calibrated at various time intervals. Secondly, the operator should be trained in the proper use of the said device. Thirdly, the Officer should perform a series of tests (as per manufacturer recommendations and State laws) as well as a traffic history of the general enforcement area.

Trial Preparation

Police Officers / Troopers that issue this specific type of violations or in some states are called citations are "Experts" in the operation of these aforementioned devices. Logically the best defense, of course if your innocent is to retain an "Expert" in this exact field. Remember you would not hire a plumber to perform open-heart surgery, obtain the right expert. Save your hard-earned money - don't hire another type of expert. Whoever you retain, if any, ask them a few questions:

1. What is your success rate for speeding violations?

2. What type of field investigation(s) are you going to perform?

3. Other than a court show, what evidence are you going to present in court, on the date of my trial?

On a closing note, put yourself in the judge's position, everyone claims they're "Not Guilty", the key is to prove it - Good Luck!!

These type of speed detection methods are used in certain States, e.g.  New York (NY), New Jersey  (NJ), California (CA), Utah, Connecticut (CT), West Virginia (WV), Pennsylvania (PA),Texas (Tx), Florida (FL), Arizona (Az), Utah, (UT - SLC), etc.

Traffic Speeding Expert Witness

Let's face it, some motorist that are given a speeding ticket are really guilty. I personally agree with trying to get these dangerous motorists off our roadways. These drivers will continue to rack up more and more violations until they have their licenses revoked. After a truly innocent motorist receives this type of tickets /  violation, he or she is very upset. Some drivers believe that the best solution is to have their day in court, in order to prove their innocents.

Police Traffic Stops

Reasons for Probable Cause Stops

Most "Probable Cause" traffic stops are for         

Testimonials / Reviews



If you have been pulled over for PROBABLE CAUSE while traveling in your vehicle , call the best EXPERT WITNESS to help defend you. Much of his work is concentrated on speeding due to radar , laser or pacing methods utilized by police. If you want a tough , highly successful Expert Witness , then call Perry Zucker !! - CR