Laser / Lidar speed gun (speeding ticket) measures speed by utilizes an infrared light beam, which is activated by the Police Officer, at a moving target (your vehicle). The officer observed the target vehicle (yours / defendant) and reads the speed display of the laser/ lidar unit.
Radar Gun / Unit (speeding ticket) speed measures speed by utilizes RF, which is activated by the police officer, at a moving target (your vehicle). The officer observed the target vehicle (yours / defendant) and reads the speed display of the radar unit.
Pacing / Pace (speeding ticket) measures speed of the target vehicle (yours) by keeping a uniform distance from the rear / front / side for a specific distance(s) and reads the speed of his/her speedometer.
Gap Time / Timing / Vascar (speeding ticket) measures speed of the target vehicle (yours), utilize a method that uses a timing theory between two (2) points with a known distance.
Disobey Traffic Control Device (ticket) - The police officer observes a target vehicle passes a traffic signal, sign, and/or crossing a pavement marking(s), etc.
Faulty Equipment (ticket) - The police officer observes a target vehicle that has standard equipment not operating, e.g. headlight(s), taillights, etc. and/or equipment that should not be operating.
DUI / DWI ( Driving Under The influence) / (Driving While Intoxicated) - The police officer / trooper observes the target vehicle is driving erratic, such as weaving, swerving, various speed(s), and/or not driving reasonable and prudent for environmental / roadway condition(s).
Traffic Stop - Once, the vehicle (yours) is pulled over to a safe portion of the roadway, the police officer / trooper will make a determination, if any further action(s) should be taken, such as authorized or unauthorized search for marijuana, heroin, cocaine , pills, drugs, etc, person of interest interview(s), traffic speeding ticket(s) and/or arrest, as well as possibly impounding the vehicle in question. (+) In some States
Conclusion - Reasons For Probable Cause In order for a law enforcement officer to make a lawful probable cause traffic stop, he/she must meet certain key elements (See Above). It is these type of cases, that a probable cause traffic stop expert witness will be critical.
Definitions of Traffic Probable Cause "`A well-grounded suspicion that a crime has been or is being committed”(+). The facts and circumstances must show a "`reasonable ground for belief of guilt.
Most "Probable Cause" traffic stops are for an indirect reason(s). Some of these vehicle traffic stops were initialized by:
Testimonials / Reviews
If you have been pulled over for PROBABLE CAUSE while traveling in your vehicle , call the best EXPERT WITNESS to help defend you. Much of his work is concentrated on speeding due to radar , laser or pacing methods utilized by police. If you want a tough , highly successful Expert Witness , then call Perry Zucker !! - CR
I hired Mr. Zucker and his team to help my son fight a speeding ticket and probable cause. Mr. Zucker was instrumental in fighting this problem and getting all charges dismissed. TG
The cops pulled me over for a probable cause traffic stop where the police officer said I was intoxicated and I didn’t even have anything to drink. The police officer pulled me over for going 15 miles an hour over the speed limit when I was doing the speed limit. Perry Zucker proved to the court that the error of the speeding 15 mile an hour overage was incorrect and I was doing the limit….Richie S
It was a pleasure working with you on Mr. X’a case. Your dedication and attention to details went above and beyond most experts. You were a valuable asset to the defense team and played a major role in Mr. X's acquittal. Thank you for your expertise. - JD, Esq