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Visual Estimation / Observation Speeding Ticket Expert
By Perry Zucker

Police Visual Estimation / Observation Speeding - How does It Works? (Theory):

In some states, police officers / troopers must make an independent visual estimation observation of the target vehicle coupled with use a speed measuring device, e.g. radar, laser / lidar, pacing / pace, gap time / timing, vascar. - By Perry Zucker


Basically, the officer / trooper observes a target vehicle

State

Statute

State

Statute

State

Statute

Alabama

32-5A-190, 32-5A-171

Alaska

 28.35.040, 13 AAC 002.275

Arizona

  28-693, 28-701, 28-701.02

Arkansas

 27-50-308, 27-51-201

California

 VC §22348(b), 22352

Colorado

  42-4-1101, 42-4-1401, 42-4-1402

Connecticut

14-222, 14-218a, 14-219

Delaware

21-4168, 21-4175

District of Columbia

DC Code 50-2201.04

Florida

 316.192, 316.183, 316.187

Georgia

 40-6-390, 40-6-180 to 189

Hawaii

291-2, 291C-101, 291C-102

Idaho

49-1401, 49-654

Illinois

625 ILCS 5/11-503, 5/11-601

Indiana

9-21-5, 9-21-8-52

Iowa

 321.277, 321.285

Kansas

 8-1558, 8-1566

Kentucky

189.290, 189.390

Louisiana

 §32:61-32:64

Maine

29A §2413, 29A §2074

Maryland

 21-801.1, 21-901.1

Massachusetts

 Ch. 90 §17, Ch. 90 §24

Michigan

257.626, 257.627-257.633

Minnesota

169.14, 169.13

Mississippi

 63-3-501, 63-3-1201

Missouri

304.010, 304.012

Montana

 61-8-301, 61-8-303

Nebraska

60-6,213, 60-6,186

Nevada

484.377, 484.361

New Hampshire

 265:79, 265:60

New Jersey

 39:4-96, 39:4-98

New Mexico

  66-8-113, 66-7-301

New York

VTL 1180 d1, d2, d3, d4,  1212, 1643

North Carolina

20-16.1, 20-141

North Dakota

39-08-03, 39-09-02

Ohio

4511.20, 4511-21

Oklahoma

 47-11-901, 47-11-801

Oregon

811.109, 811.140

Pennsylvania

75 §3362, 75 §3736

Puerto Rico

T. 9 § 5122, T. 9 § 5128

Rhode Island

31-14

South Carolina

56-5-11

South Dakota

 32-24, 32-25

Tennessee

55-10-205, 55-8-152

Texas

§545.352, §545.401

Utah

 41-6a-601, 41-6a-528

Vermont

 23/1091, 23/1081, 23/1097

Virginia

  46.2-862, 46.2-870

Washington

 46.61.500, 46.61.400, 46.61.465

West Virginia

17C-5-3, 17C-6

Wisconsin

 346.57, 346.62

Wyoming

 31-5-301, 31-5-229




* As of 2012


State Statutes for  Speeding*  

View Visual Est. Demo Visuial Observation eye

(yours / defendant) and uses their training to estimate the speed of the vehicle under surveillance. The officer uses their visual depth perception coupled with the size and the timing of the target vehicle, with respects to clue points, e.g. trees, poles, perpendicular painted pavement lines on the roadway.

Visual Estimation / Observation Accuracy - Speed

The use of visual estimations / observations to enforce speed limit laws has NOT been given judicial recognition in all states. However, there is no scientific consistent  way to check, but merely an average constant concerning accuracy.  Some departments may have there own specification(s) accurate level(s).  

Police Visual Estimation / Observation Speeding - Trial Preparation:

Review all the document(s) / evidence (objectionable / objections) that the officer plans to use on the trial date. Most police officers that issue a speeding ticket uses a speed measuring device such as: radar, pacing / pace, gap timing / Vascar coupled with visual estimations / observations are "Experts" in the operation of the aforementioned action(s). Logically the best defense, is to retain an "Expert / Expert Witness" in  this exact field.  The expert should be an engineer, that is familiar with radar, pacing / pace, gap timing / Vascar speed measuring device (certified speed measuring device operator / instructor), police training , vehicle characteristics, certified vehicle technician/ mechanic, as well as court rules.
Usually trial by declaration (mail) rarely is successful (selected states).


Visual Estimation Speeding Expert Witness Services

We offer visual speed estimation experts that can provide site investigations, review of all material, as well as expert witness testimony concerning the speeding ticket / probable cause traffic stops that are in question.

Police Traffic Stops

Reasons for Probable Cause Stops

Most "Probable Cause" traffic stops are for  reason(s)

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Testimonials / Reviews

                       


                        

If you have been pulled over for PROBABLE CAUSE while traveling in your vehicle , call the best EXPERT WITNESS to help defend you. Much of his work is concentrated on speeding due to radar , laser or pacing methods utilized by police. If you want a tough , highly successful Expert Witness , then call Perry Zucker !! - CR


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