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Traffic Speeding Tickets   |    Probable Cause Traffic Stops  | Traffic Accident Reconstruction    |    Expert Witnesses

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Reasons For Probable Cause - By Perry Zucker

Laser / Lidar speed gun (speeding ticket) measures speed by utilizes an infrared light beam, which is activated by the Police Officer, at a moving target (your vehicle). The officer observed the target vehicle (yours / defendant) and reads the speed display of the laser/ lidar unit.  

Radar Gun / Unit  (speeding ticket) speed measures speed by utilizes RF, which is activated by the police officer, at a moving target (your vehicle). The officer observed the target vehicle (yours / defendant) and reads the speed display of the radar unit.

Pacing / Pace (speeding ticket) measures speed of the target vehicle (yours) by keeping a uniform distance from the rear / front / side for a specific distance(s) and reads the speed of his/her speedometer.

Gap Time / Timing / Vascar (speeding ticket)  measures speed of the target vehicle (yours), utilize a method  that uses a timing theory between two (2) points with a known distance.  

Disobey Traffic Control Device  (ticket) - The police officer observes a target vehicle passes a traffic signal, sign, and/or crossing a pavement marking(s), etc.

Faulty Equipment (ticket) - The police officer observes a target vehicle that has standard equipment not operating, e.g. headlight(s), taillights, etc. and/or equipment that should not be operating.

DUI / DWI ( Driving Under The influence) / (Driving While Intoxicated) - The police officer / trooper observes the target vehicle is driving erratic, such as weaving, swerving, various speed(s), and/or not driving reasonable and prudent for environmental / roadway condition(s).


Traffic Stop - Once, the vehicle (yours) is pulled over to a safe portion of the roadway,  the police officer / trooper will make a determination, if any further action(s) should be taken, such as authorized or unauthorized search for marijuana, heroin, cocaine , pills, drugs, etc, person of interest interview(s), traffic speeding ticket(s) and/or arrest, as well as possibly impounding the vehicle in question. (+) In some States

Conclusion - Reasons For Probable Cause
In order for a law enforcement officer to make a lawful probable cause traffic stop, he/she must meet certain key  elements (See Above).  It is these type of cases, that a probable cause traffic stop expert witness will be critical.  

Traffic Speeding Tickets

Police Traffic Stops

Definitions of  Traffic Probable Cause
"`A well-grounded suspicion that a crime has been or is being committed”(+). The facts and circumstances must show a "`reasonable ground for belief of guilt.

Most "Probable Cause" traffic stops are for an indirect reason(s).  Some of these vehicle traffic stops were initialized by:

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If you have been pulled over for PROBABLE CAUSE while traveling in your vehicle , call the best EXPERT WITNESS to help defend you. Much of his work is concentrated on speeding due to radar , laser or pacing methods utilized by police. If you want a tough , highly successful Expert Witness , then call Perry Zucker !! - CR


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